The use of the subjunctive…

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Kinga Lis

Autor: Kinga Lis
Tytuł: The use of the subjunctive in an Early Modern English translation of the Laws of Oléron

Monografia dotyczy wykorzystania trybu łączącego (subjunctive) w XVI-wiecznym tłumaczeniu średniowiecznego kodeksu morskiego znanego jako „Prawa z Oléronu” na wczesny nowoangielski. Autorka analizuje teksty źródłowe i bada zagadnienie trybu łączącego oraz jego miejsce w teorii gramatycznej. Książka w języku angielskim.

 

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments / 11
Introduction / 13

Chapter 1: The Laws of Oléron – the Anglo-Norman, Middle French and Early Modern English versions / 17
1.1 Introduction / 17
1.2 General information about the text / 18
1.3 The objective of the Laws of Oléron and their spread / 24
1.4 The earliest Anglo-Norman copies / 26
1.5 The Early Modern English translation of the Laws of Oléron / 30
1.5.1 Linguistic background / 31
1.5.2 The translation(s) / 33
1.6 The Middle French source text / 37
1.7 Conclusion / 45

Chapter 2: The subjunctive in the Early Modern English period / 47
2.1 Introduction / 47
2.2 The notion of the subjunctive / 48
2.2.1 The subjunctive in English grammatical theory, 16th-early 20th centuries / 48
2.2.2 Modern views on the subjunctive / 54
2.3 The subjunctive in the eMnE period: 1476-1776 / 57
2.3.1 Theoretical accounts / 57
2.3.1.1 Historical detour / 57
2.3.1.2 The subjunctive in eMnE in the limelight / 58
2.3.2 Empirical studies / 63
2.4 Conclusion / 67

Chapter 3: Methodology / 69
3.1 Introduction / 69
3.2 The identification of the subjunctive / 70
3.3 The analysis of the data / 76
3.3.1 Non-dependent clauses / 76
3.3.2 Dependent clauses / 77
3.3.2.1 Adverbial clauses / 78
3.3.2.2 Comparative clauses / 79
3.3.2.3 Relative clauses / 79
3.3.2.4 Nominal clauses / 80
3.3.2.5 Working with dependent clauses – further subdivisions / 80
3.3.2.6 Classification of clauses according to form / 81
3.3.2.7 The eMnE data vs. their MF and AN source(s) / 83
3.4 The structure of the study / 88
3.5 Conclusion / 89

Chapter 4: The use of the subjunctive in the Early Modern English translation of the Laws of Oléron / 91
4.1 Introduction / 91
4.2 The subjunctive in non-dependent clauses / 92
4.3 The subjunctive in dependent clauses / 93
4.3.1 Adverbial clauses / 93
4.3.1.1 Clauses of condition / 93
4.3.1.2 Clauses of similarity and comparison / 96
4.3.1.3 Clauses of purpose / 98
4.3.1.4 Clauses of result / 99
4.3.1.5 Clauses of reason / 100
4.3.1.6 Clauses of manner / 103
4.3.1.7 Clauses of time / 104
4.3.1.8 Clauses of place / 105
4.3.1.9 Adverbial clauses – an overview of findings / 106
4.3.2 Comparative clauses / 113
4.3.3 Relative clauses / 114
4.3.3.1 Adnominal relative clauses / 115
4.3.3.2 Nominal relative clauses / 116
4.3.3.3 Relative clauses – an overview of findings / 117
4.3.4 Nominal clauses / 120
4.3.4.1 Nominal clauses functioning as a subject / 120
4.3.4.2 Nominal clause functioning as a subject complement / 122
4.3.4.3 Nominal clauses functioning as an object / 122
4.3.4.4 Appositive nominal clause / 127
4.3.4.5 Nominal clauses – an overview of findings / 127
4.3.5 Overview of the findings / 131
4.4 Conclusion / 135

Chapter 5: The use of subjunctive – other perspectives / 137
5.1 Introduction / 137
5.2 The use of subjunctive after different conjunctions / 138
5.3 Mandative subjunctive / 151
5.4 The use of the subjunctive with different main verbs / 152
5.4.1 The main verbs used in the clauses analysed / 152
5.4.2 Subjunctive: to be vs. lexical verbs / 160
5.5 The use of the subjunctive in passive vs. active voices / 163
5.6 Modal verbs as an alternative to the subjunctive / 167
5.7 Negation / 171
5.8 Conclusion / 173

Chapter 6: The use of the subjunctive in the French source text(s) / 175
6.1 Introduction / 175
6.2 The subjunctive in clauses corresponding to eMnE non-dependent clauses / 176
6.3 The subjunctive in clauses corresponding to eMnE dependent clauses / 177
6.3.1 Adverbial clauses / 177
6.3.1.1 Clauses of condition / 177
6.3.1.2 Clauses of similarity and comparison / 180
6.3.1.3 Clauses of purpose / 182
6.3.1.4 Clauses of result / 183
6.3.1.5 Clauses of reason / 185
6.3.1.6 Clauses of manner / 186
6.3.1.7 Clauses of time / 187
6.3.1.8 Clauses of place / 189
6.3.1.9 Adverbial clauses – an overview of findings / 190
6.3.2 Comparative clauses / 204
6.3.3 Relative clauses / 205
6.3.3.1 Adnominal relative clauses / 205
6.3.3.2 Nominal relative clauses / 207
6.3.3.3 Relative clauses – an overview of findings / 208
6.3.4 Nominal clauses / 213
6.3.4.1 Nominal clauses functioning as a subject / 214
6.3.4.2 Nominal clause functioning as a subject complement / 215
6.3.4.3 Nominal clauses functioning as an object / 215
6.3.4.4 Appositive nominal clause / 217
6.3.4.5 Nominal clauses – an overview of findings / 217
6.3.5 Overview of the findings concerning dependent clauses / 227
6.4 Conclusion / 234

Conclusion239

Appendix I: The data / 243
A.1 Preliminary information / 243
A.2 eMnE non-dependent clauses (Sections 4.2 and 6.2) / 246
A.3 eMnE dependent clauses (Sections 4.3 and 6.3) / 248
A.3.1 eMnE adverbial clauses (Sections 4.3.1 and 6.3.1) / 248
A.3.1.1. eMnE clauses of condition (Sections 4.3.1.1 and 6.3.1.1) / 248
A.3.1.2 eMnE clauses of similarity and comparison (Sections 4.3.1.2 and 6.3.1.2) / 264
A.3.1.3 eMnE clauses of purpose (Sections 4.3.1.3 and 6.3.1.3) / 266
A.3.1.4 eMnE clauses of result (Sections 4.3.1.4 and 6.3.1.4) / 267
A.3.1.5 eMnE clauses of reason (Sections 4.3.1.5 and 6.3.1.5) / 268
A.3.1.6 eMnE clauses of manner (Sections 4.3.1.6 and 6.3.1.6) / 272
A.3.1.7 eMnE clauses of time (Sections 4.3.1.7 and 6.3.1.7) / 272
A.3.1.8 eMnE clauses of place (Sections 4.3.1.8 and 6.3.1.8) / 278
A.3.2 eMnE comparative clauses (Sections 4.3.2 and 6.3.2) / 278
A.3.3 eMnE relative clauses (Sections 4.3.3 and 6.3.3) / 280
A.3.3.1. eMnE adnominal relative clauses (Sections 4.3.3.1 and 6.3.3.1) / 280
A.3.3.2 eMnE nominal relative clauses (Sections 4.3.3.2 and 6.3.3.2) / 289
A.3.4 eMnE nominal clauses (Sections 4.3.4 and 6.3.4) / 289
A.3.4.1 eMnE nominal clauses functioning as a subject (Sections 4.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.1) / 289
A.3.4.2 eMnE nominal clause functioning as a subject complement (Sections 4.3.4.2 and 6.3.4.2) / 293
A.3.4.3 eMnE nominal clauses functioning as an object (Sections 4.3.4.3 and 6.3.4.3) / 294
A.3.4.4 eMnE appositive nominal clause (Sections 4.3.4.4 and 6.3.4.4) / 298

Appendix II: Tables / 299

List of Tables / 301
List of Charts / 306
Bibliography / 311
Primary sources / 311
References / 313

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